Wednesday, November 17, 2010


To those who really want to be perfect in computer operations and understanding, this article which shall come in 'parts' will give you tips gently from the basics of computer to the complex usage of the software in the system. Before anyone starts using the programs in the system, he or she needs to understand the system parts and their usage. And so I wish to let you know of the meaning of computer and probably the generations of computer soon.
Definition of a Computer System
Computer is defined in so many ways by so many people based on their field of specialization. A computer is a set of interrelated and interactive devices, which uses electronic components to perform a predefined operation with accuracy. But generally, a computer system may simply be defined as an electronic device, which is capable of accepting data as input, process the data, store the data and provide a result as output in human readable form. The four basic parts of a computer are Monitor, Keyboard, Mouse and System unit.
A Brief History of Computer
Computer history and development is always traced to Charles Babbage, the Father of computers and Lady Ada Lovelace, the Mother of Programming. The computer we have come to use today perfectly without any much stress and difficulty was not invented the way we have seen but passed through series of processes and stages. There exist five generations of computer as briefly discussed below:
First Generation Computer (The Vacuum Tube Technology)
This generation of computers consists of computers developed between 1944 and 1959. ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator), EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computers) and UNIVAC 1 and 11 are first generation computers. This generation of computers were very bulky, dissipates a lot of heat, some were very heavy, weighing up to 200 tons. Because of the heat, they needed special cooling system. The characteristic technology of this generation was the use of vacuum tubes as the basic building blocks for the logic parts of the computers. In terms of speed they were very slow compared with computers of later generations.
Second Generation Computer (The Transistor Technology)
The technology, which gave the distinguishing characteristics of the second -generation computers, was the transistor technology. Although this device was developed in 1948 in Bell Telephone Laboratories, and was used largely in the electronic world, it was not until 1959 that it was introduced in the manufacture of computers. These transistors replaced the bulky vacuum tubes. In addition to doing everything that the vacuum tube could do, the transistors would do so with greater reliability, with less power requirement, generate less heat, less costly to manufacture and much smaller in size. The computers developed between 1959 and 1964 are called the second-generation computers. Examples: IBM 7030, 7070, 7090, 7094, Boroughs 200 series, UNIVAC III, Honey-well 800 etc. The development of high level programming languages like FORTRAN and COBOL was another innovation brought by the second-generation computers and were 10 times faster than the first.
Third Generation Computers (Integrated Circuit Technology)
Between 1964 and 1971, the third generation computers were developed. It was the technology of integrated circuits that opened the gates to the third generation computers. In fact we can say that the integrated circuit technology really revolutionized the computer technology itself. Integrated circuits are attached to a small piece of silicon chip. This technology cam progressively from Small Scale Integration (SSI), which contained about twenty interconnected transistors and diodes, through the Medium Scale Integration (MSI) which had over hundred interconnected transistors on a single chip, to Large Scale Integration (LSI) of over tens of thousand of transistors and diodes on a single chip. The achievements of the Integrated circuit technology led to even faster, more reliable, cheap and small-sized computers, whose powers were multiple of those of the earlier generations. In deed, this generation of computers gave birth to the mini computers, whose power of operation was more than the earlier generation, greater reliability and speed, yet was far less in size and in cost. They could do hundred times as many calculations per second and hundred times faster than their second-generation counterparts could. Examples: IBM 31360 - 31370 series, CDC 6600, 7600, Boroughs B5000 and PDP II series.
The Fourth Generation Computers (VLSIC Micro Technology
The very large-scale integrated circuit (VLSIC), made possible by the micro technology of the period 1971-1982 ushered in the fourth generation of computers. VLSIC has between 5,000 and 50,000 gates (transistors), upon which micro-processors were built. The effect of this technology was smaller and smaller but more and more powerful computers whose speed and reliability trivialized those of the earlier generations. This era also produced the micro-computers that could do the job of first generation large computers with thousand of times faster speed and affordable prices even by individual. This generation also produced a wide variety of software packages like word processing packages, graphics, games, spreadsheet packages and database management systems. Networking capabilities were also enhanced in this era. Examples of the fourth generation computers include the IBM 3033, HP 3000 mini computers, Apple II, Boroughs B7700.
Fifth Generation Computers (Era of Artificial Intelligence)
The technology of this generation of computers is characterized by Super Large Scale Integration (ULSI), Ultra Large Scale Integration (ULSI), parallel processing, Artificial Intelligence, Speech Processing, Pattern Recognition and Expert System. The distinguishing characteristics of this generation of computer are their tremendous speed and power. Continuous miniaturization of computers is the order of the day, newer, smaller, more powerful computers are seen day by day. Powerful microcomputers have today dwarfed the capability of the older days mainframe. Pentium II mother board with clock speed higher than 300 MHz and hard disk storage space over 20 Gigabytes with unbelievable capabilities, are now affordable by even low income earners. Networking, ranging from local, wide area to Internets are the common features of this generation of computers and has reduced the whole world into a global village


Computers run fast when it's new but the older it gets, the slower it performs. This is one of the number one complaints of many computer owners. There's no need to buy a new PC. All it takes are a few simple steps.
1. Check your RAM capacity- If your RAM capacity is low, then you should try to avoid opening many programs all at the same time. One thing you can do is increase the capacity by buying a RAM with a bigger size.
2. Run your Registry Cleaner- Sluggishness of the computer may also be caused by errors from a corrupted registry. Regularly run a scan of your registry to keep it clean and error free.
3 Defrag the System- By defragging your system, you are organizing the files so that it is easier for the computer to find. Go to My Computer and click on Local Disk. Click Tools and you can start defragging from there
4. Uninstall unneeded programs- Go to Control Panel and select the Add/Remove programs. You will see a list of all the programs currently installed on your computer. Check which ones you use and which one you don't.
5.Delete the ones that you rarely use. You'll be surprised at how much faster your PC has become. By deleting unnecessary programs, you will lighten the load in your hard drive.

Though the registry can be scanned manually, it is not advised since it can make matters worse. You can download a registry cleaning software which you can use to safely clean your registry.
This is one of the most important steps in increasing the speed of the computer. Most people are not familiar with a registry but a corrupted registry is one of the major causes of a slow performing computer.
Some people also purchase an anti-virus software to protect their computer from viruses and to speed up the computer. While this is also a helpful step in increasing the computer's performance, it is much better to try these money-free steps first.
The goal here is not only to increase the speed of your computer but also to increase it without spending money. The next time your computer slows down again, just perform these 5 easy steps to get it running like new again.


When you look at teens this days, you look at technology. And, not only teens, it is the youngsters in all. A lot of times, you find the latest gadgets in their hands. At other times, you find them looking for spare parts, such as phone parts or Mac book parts, for their devices.
Technology and youths are closely bonded. Moreover, it is not just the peer pressure or being luxurious, different technical devices have become a necessity for youngsters, especially the students. One example of this is a laptop.
One knows it for sure that a computer laptop is stylish in the new age of computers. With one in your hand, you just becomes a style icon; there is no doubt about it. Moreover, if all your friends at school have it, you too have to own it. This is where peer pressure dives in.
However, if you look at it from another way, a laptop is not just a piece to show off your riches. Instead, it is a basic need for students. Why? There are many tips for it.
The first thing that explains its importance is portability. With a laptop, it is easier for students to carry their homework and projects to their college. They do not need discs or flash drives, neither do they have to worry about whether the college computer will work or not. They can carry their own, and continue with their projects.
Moreover, college study also includes different presentations and multimedia tasks. Here also a laptop will serve the students. They can use different applications and come up with an impressive assignment.
Being a college student, one has to spend most of the time on studying, and using IT skills for it. This requires much time spent on a computer. A personalized computer such as a laptop will always be available for these tasks.
Similarly, learning is the basic part of your college. And, not only learning, it is detailed learning that a student has to carry out. This also requires proper understanding of concepts and ample research.
For this purpose, a student has to use all the available resources. Internet is the most use source of information, and a laptop makes browsing easy and friendly.
As a part of a student's life in school or any place, social interaction too is needed. A student needs to share important informations with other students and work on different assignments as a team. This requires data transfer and better understanding, involving a group. For all these reasons, better communication is necessary.
Moreover, social media sites are another platform where these youngsters interact. Apart from studies, they also want to take a break and enjoy latest updates and gossips.
Many students might also work as well as read their books. In that case, online classes are a great opportunity that they have. By having a laptop, they can easily attend these lectures wherever they are.
In all, there are many ways that make a laptop important for students. Technology is pacing forward and new applications are invented. These suit the students' life so that they work hard in creating a better fulture.


Computers are available in different shapes, sizes and weights, due to these different shapes and sizes they perform different sorts of jobs from one another.
They can also be classified in different ways. All the computers are designed by the qualified computer architectures that design these machines as their requirements.
A computer that is used in a home differs in size and shape from the computer being used in a hospital. Computers act as a server in large buildings, while the computer also differs in size and shape performing its job as a weather forecaster.
A student carrying a laptop with him to his college is different in shape and size from all the computers mentioned above.
Here we are going to introduce different classifications of computers one by one. We will discuss what are in classifications and what job they perform.
Super computer
The largest in size, the most high in price than any other is classified and known as super computer. It can process trillions of instructions in just a few seconds. This computer is not used as a Personal Computer in a home neither by a student in a college or the university.
Governments specially use this type of computer for their different big jobs. Different industries also use this huge computer for designing their products.
In most of the Hollywood's movies it is used for animation purposes. This kind of computer is also helpful for forecasting weather reports worldwide.
Another big in computers after the super computer is Mainframe, which can also process millions of datas per second and able to access billions of data.
This computer is commonly used in big air line reservations hotel,companies and many other huge companies prefer mainframe because of its capability of bringing out datas on a huge basis.
This is normally too unattainable by individuals and out of reach from a salary-based person who wants a computer for his home.
This kind of computer can cost up to millions of dollars.
This computer is next in line but less offers less than mainframe in work and performance. These are the computers, which are mostly preferred by the small type of business personals, colleges, etc.
Personal computers
Almost all the computer users are familiar with the personal computers. They normally know what the personal computer is and what its functions are.
This is the computer mostly preferred by the home users. These computers are lesser in cost than the computers given above and also, small in size; they are also called PCs in short for Personal computers.
This computer is small in size and you can easily arrange it to fit in your single bedroom with its all accommodation. Today this is thought to be the most popular computer in all.
Notebook computers
Having a little size and low weight the notebook is easy to carry to anywhere. A student can take it with him/her to his/her school in his/her bag with his/her book.
This is easy to carry around and preferred by students and business people to meet their assignments and other necessary tasks.
The approach of this computer is also the same as the Personal computer. It can store the same amount of informations and having a storage of the same size as that of a personal computer. One can say that it is the replacement of personal desktop computer.